Maternal and neonatal behavior.

标题Maternal and neonatal behavior.
文章类型Journal Article
作者Gonyou, H. W., & Stookey J. M.
期刊The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice
发表日期1987 Jul
关键词Animals, Animals, Domestic, Animals, Newborn, Animals, Suckling, Behavior, Animal, Female, Labor, Obstetric, Maternal Behavior, Pregnancy, Pregnancy, Animal, Weaning

Maternal and neonatal behavior differs among food-producing mammals, and our management must reflect these differences. Sows will show more elaborate preparturient behavior than the other species as they attempt to build a nest that will last for several days. Because the nest is the focal point of maternal behavior for several days, the sow does not need to recognize her piglets until they are about 1 week of age. Although this facilitates the fostering of piglets between litters, the teat order developed by piglets during the first day or two makes it difficult for alien piglets to suckle when first fostered. Piglets are weaned at a relatively early age, and this results in conflict as neonatal behavior persists in an environment that requires better developed feeding patterns. Restrictions placed on ewes and cows by confinement at the time of parturition may result in their being unable to select an appropriate birth site. Our management must accommodate these needs by providing sites that are protected from the harsh environment and also allow separation from the rest of the flock. This is particularly important for ewes bearing multiple young, for lambs frequently become separated from the ewe while she is caring for another lamb. Both cows and ewes must be allowed to bond to their offspring soon after birth if they are to provide adequate maternal care. Fostering in these species involves manipulation of identifying stimuli to overcome the dam's ability to recognize her own young shortly after birth. Suckling problems, due to pendulous udders on cows and multiple lambs in sheep, may require attention by the stockman shortly after birth. Weaning does not result in major behavioral problems in sheep or beef cattle that are weaned after the young are consuming solid feed on a regular basis. Dairy calves, which are initially weaned onto milk replacer at a very early age, may develop inappropriate sucking behaviors that persist beyond weaning onto a solid diet. Despite our growing knowledge of maternal and neonatal behavior, mortality among piglets, lambs, and calves is still high. However, many of the most recent findings have yet to be incorporated into management procedures or standard practice. As this occurs, we should be able to reduce losses of young animals.

Alternate JournalVet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract.